Skip to content

Cart

Your cart is empty

Article: Baby Products, Marketing Tactics & Problematic Ingredients

Baby Products, Marketing Tactics & Problematic Ingredients

Baby Products, Marketing Tactics & Problematic Ingredients

Navigating Baby Care Products: A Guide to Choosing Safe and Minimal Ingredients

Introduction:
Choosing the right products for your baby can be overwhelming, especially with the number of options available on the market. Amidst this noise, how can you be sure that you're selecting the best ingredients for your baby? The confusion is further compounded by tricky marketing tactics and a phenomenon known as "eco-gaslighting". In this blog, we'll explore what eco-gaslighting means and delve into common chemicals found in baby products, shedding light on why it's important to understand ingredient lists and look past the marketing terms. 

Understanding Eco-Gaslighting:
Eco-gaslighting is a term used to describe brands that attempt to deceive or mislead consumers by using buzzwords like "eco-friendly," "green-friendly," "natural," "paraben-free," and "BPA-free." Unfortunately, many products labeled with these terms may still contain a significant number of chemicals, often as many as conventional products. 

Founder's Passion for Ingredient Literacy:
At the heart of our commitment to baby care is our founder, Caitlin, a registered midwife/nurse and nutrition consultant. She is passionate about educating parents on the importance of reading and understanding ingredient lists. A simple piece of advice she offers is to avoid ingredients that are challenging to pronounce. Instead, opt for products with simple, minimal, and high-quality ingredients, each serving a purpose.

Common chemicals found in baby products:

1. Fragrance:

Fragrance is a collection of chemicals that are used to give a product a certain smell. We are often exposed to fragrances just like second hand smoking! For instance, ever go to give granny a hug only to be doused in a strong, overpowering scent? Yep, you have just been bathed in fragrance. According to the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 3,059 materials can be used in fragrance. Many of these, have been linked to cancer, reproductive toxicity, endocrine disruption, allergies and more. In fact, a single scent can contain anywhere from 50-300 chemicals. I could write an entire book just on the negative health outcomes associated with fragrance. Fragrance allergies are estimated to affect anywhere from 2-11% of people which is significant. Some concerning studies suggests:  

  • Low concentrations of fragrance can provoke asthma attacks
  • An average of 4 endocrine disrupting ingredients can be found in fragrance
  • Fragrance can contain ingredients that are known to be carcinogenic. 
  • Synthetic musks and certain fragrance ingredients have been shown to be neurotoxic
  • Many fragrances contain triclosan which has been implicated in PCOS 
  • Many fragrances contain phthalates which have been implicated in Endometriosis 

Interestingly, but not well known, scientists and other health professionals who work in IVF clinics are not allowed to wear perfume or strong deodorant for this reason due to negative effects on embyros and sperm.

2. Parabens:

Parabens are a type of chemical that you will commonly find in all types of personal hygiene, skincare and cosmetic products. They are typically used in products to prevent growth of certain types of bacteria and moulds.

Paraben is an overarching term used for certain chemicals like:

  • Methylparaben
  • Propylparaben
  • Butylparaben
  • Ethylparaben

Parabens are forever chemicals which means that they are invasive and persistent in the environment.

In one study looking at the urine samples of 2,548 people, parabens were found in 99% of all samples. One of the main reasons why parabens are viewed to be detrimental for your health is because they interfere with your endocrine system (e.g. your hormones). One particular ramification of this, which has been studied is the link between breast cancer and paraben exposure. They have also been connected with abnormal sperm, sperm DNA damage and infertility. 

3. Polyethylene Glycol (PEGs):
PEGS are a mixture of compounds that have different molecular weights such as 8 or 100. The smaller the weight, the easier it is absorbed into the skin. PEGS usually act as transporters of other ingredients into the skin. For instance, PEGS will help other chemicals like parabens absorb more readily. This is further enhanced if the skin barrier is already compromised. Depending on the manufacturer, there are risks that PEGs are contaminated with ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane (a known human carcinogen).

4. Triclosan (TCS):
TCS is added to many personal care items in order to reduce bacterial overgrowth. Research shows that TCS is also easily absorbed by the skin. In a study looking at 2517 people, TCS was found in 75% of urine samples which is concerning. However, this may be on the low end with a Queensland study showing that TCS was found in 100% of the 2400 samples tested. This chemical has been linked to a number of health issues including; Mitochondrial dysfunction, Immunological disruption, Calcium signalling disturbance, Endocrine disruption, reduced thyroid output, cancer development, diminished cardiovascular function. Human studies have also inked elevated TCS in urine and umbilical blood samples with birth defects 

5. Phthalates:
They are typically added to products to assist in creating the fragrance or smell of the product and also to help with lubrication. Similar to parabens, phthalates also seem to impact health via the endocrine system. Outside of the area of reproductive health which is where they do the most damage, phthalates have also been linked with asthma. For instance, one study found that elevated urinary phthalate levels were linked with poor pulmonary function in children. Other potential health issues include gut dysbiosis (imbalance) and thyroid dysfunction, amongst other concerns. 

6. Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS):

SLS is found in a lot of cleaning and personal care products that produce foam or bubbles. Baby wash is a common product SLS is added to.

Given SLS is a surfactant, it has been linked with a lot of skin related irritations and may be something you want to avoid if your little one has any existing skin conditions such as eczema or dermatitis.

In one study looking at 1600 people, it was found that 41% of people had a hyperactive skin reaction to SLS patch testing.

A similar study observing 7 people found that regular contact led to skin irritation, which subsequently subsided when the volunteers were no longer exposed to SLS. More evidence suggests that the warmer the water (we all know our little ones like toasty baths), the more likely SLS will cause issues for the skin. 

7. Sodium Laureth Sulphate (SLES)

SLES is very similar to SLS and is used for the same purposes. On face value, SLES should be a better option than SLS and shouldn't lead to skin irritation issues. However, the main concern with SLES is how it is processed and what it is processed with. When SLES is being processed it goes through something called ethoxylation which is where there is the potential for contamination with 1,4 dioxane, a possible carcinogen. How many products 1,4 dioxane is found in is unknown. However, one study did find that in 76 personal care products, 82% of products contained the possible carcinogen. 

8. Bisphenol A (BPA):

BPA is an industrial chemical that is commonly found in plastic food containers, plastic baby bottles and other plastic kitchen cookware. BPA is a concern because it leaches into food and water. BPA exposure has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes. In one review study, it was said that BPA tricks the body into thinking it is a hormone and may promote the development of hormone related cancers such as; breast, ovary and prostate. BPA has also been linked to poor brain function, neurodevelopment issues, cardiovascular disease, metabolic issues, inflammation and gut dysbiosis (imbalance of bacteria).

9. Bisphenol S (BPS):

Marketed as BPA-free (A prime example of eco-gaslighting', BPS is another form of Bisphenol with similar health concerns, including metabolic impacts and correlations with gestational diabetes. In one study comparing BPS and BPA, BPS was shown to be more toxic to the reproductive system and was found to increase the risk of certain cancers at the same rate as BPA 

10. Sodium Benzoate:

One of the lesser of the evils but still worth a mention. Sodium benzoate is a preservative derived from benzoic acid and is used to prevent spoilage from bacteria, yeasts, and mould. In vitro studies show that sodium benzoate can lead to DNA damage and has also been linked to ADHD, increased activation of inflammatory pathways, and allergic reactions in some people. 

11. Homosalate:

This is commonly used in sunscreen products or skincare products containing SPF. One of the main issues with homosalate is that it is an endocrine disruptor which has oestrogenic activity.

12. Phenoxyethanol:

Commonly used as a preservative in several different cosmetic products like perfumes and soap. Like many other ethoxylated compounds, there is a risk that phenoxyethanol could contain the carcinogen 1,4 dioxane. Otherwise, phenoxyethanol has been known to be a skin irritant and cause rashes, hives and in some people anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction) 

13. Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) and Methylchloroisothiazolinone (CMIT):

MIT and CMIT are preservatives which are added to personal care products (mostly liquid) and help to prevent bacterial growth. The common concern with products which contain a mixture of these chemicals is that they can cause skin irritation. They are considered two of the most common contact allergens. In Canada, MIT has been banned from use in cosmetics. If you do find it in baby lotions and creams definitely look for cleaner alternatives where possible as it could make bubs uncomfortable if they develop contact dermatitis. 

14. Polysorbate:

Polysorbate 80 has been found to be contaminated with ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane which are both known to be carcinogenic according to the The National Toxicology Program and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. 

15. Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB):
A synthetic fatty acid derived from coconuts, CAPB has been labeled an allergen and may cause contact dermatitis.

Take Away Points:

  • Minimal ingredient lists
  • Ingredients you can understand and pronounce
  • Try to minimise toxic ingredients listed in this blog
  • Don’t be fooled by marketing terms, turn the product over and have a look at the ingredient list.

Something else to consider which I will discuss in our next blog (don’t want to make this too lengthy) is the problem with vegetable oils, nut oils and common food allergens being added to our baby products. 

References:

  1. IFRA. IFRA Ingredients, 2015. Available at http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/ingredients#.VW-Cdc-6eUk.
  2. Bickers, D. R., Calow, P., Greim, H. A., Hanifin, J. M., Rogers, A. E., Saurat, J. H., Glenn Sipes, I., Smith, R. L., & Tagami, H. (2003). The safety assessment of fragrance materials. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP, 37(2), 218–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0273-2300(03)00003-5
  3. Kumar, P., Caradonna-Graham, V. M., Gupta, S., Cai, X., Rao, P. N., & Thompson, J. (1995). Inhalation challenge effects of perfume scent strips in patients with asthma. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 75(5), 429–433.
  4. Steinemann A. (2018). Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics. Air quality, atmosphere, & health, 11(1), 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2
  5. Not So Sexy: Hidden Chemicals in Perfume and Cologne. EWG. (2010)
  6. Lam, H. R., Ladefoged, O., Ostergaard, G., Lund, S. P., & Simonsen, L. (1996). Four weeks' inhalation exposure of rats to p-cymene affects regional and synaptosomal neurochemistry. Pharmacology & toxicology, 79(5), 225–230. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1996.tb00264.x
  7. Ayuk-Takem, L., Amissah, F., Aguilar, B. J., & Lamango, N. S. (2014). Inhibition of polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase by synthetic musks induces cell degeneration. Environmental toxicology, 29(4), 466–477. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.21773
  8. Ye, J., Zhu, W., Liu, H., Mao, Y., Jin, F., & Zhang, J. (2018). Environmental exposure to triclosan and polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study in China. BMJ open, 8(10), e019707. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019707
  9. Nazir, S., Usman, Z., Imran, M., Lone, K. P., & Ahmad, G. (2018). Women Diagnosed with Endometriosis Show High Serum Levels of Diethyl Hexyl Phthalate. Journal of human reproductive sciences, 11(2), 131–136. https://doi.org/10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_137_17
  10. Lundov, M. D., Krongaard, T., Menné, T. L., & Johansen, J. D. (2011). Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review. The British journal of dermatology, 165(6), 1178–1182. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2133.2011.10523.x
  11. Castanedo-Tardana, M. P., & Zug, K. A. (2013). Methylisothiazolinone. Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug, 24(1), 2–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e31827edc73
  12. Burnett, C. L., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Marks, J. G., Jr, Shank, R. C., Slaga, T. J., Snyder, P. W., & Alan Andersen, F. (2010). Final report of the safety assessment of methylisothiazolinone. International journal of toxicology, 29(4 Suppl), 187S–213S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581810374651
  13. Burnett, C. L., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Marks, J. G., Jr, Shank, R. C., Slaga, T. J., Snyder, P. W., & Alan Andersen, F. (2010). Final report of the safety assessment of methylisothiazolinone. International journal of toxicology, 29(4 Suppl), 187S–213S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581810374651
  14. Wang, Y., & Qian, H. (2021). Phthalates and Their Impacts on Human Health. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5), 603. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050603
  15. M.L. Chen, J.S. Chen, C.L. Tang, I.F. Mao, The internal exposure of Taiwanese to phthalate–an evidence of intensive use of plastic materials Environ Int, 34 (2008), pp. 79-85
  16. Wu, W., Wu, C., Ji, C., Diao, F., Peng, J., Luo, D., Mu, X., & Ruan, X. (2020). Association between phthalate exposure and asthma risk: A meta-analysis of observational studies. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 228, 113539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113539
  17. Kim, Y. M., Kim, J., Cheong, H. K., Jeon, B. H., & Ahn, K. (2018). Exposure to phthalates aggravates pulmonary function and airway inflammation in asthmatic children. PloS one, 13(12), e0208553. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208553
  18. Chiu, K., Warner, G., Nowak, R. A., Flaws, J. A., & Mei, W. (2020). The Impact of Environmental Chemicals on the Gut Microbiome. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 176(2), 253–284. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa065
  19. Huang, H. B., Pan, W. H., Chang, J. W., Chiang, H. C., Guo, Y. L., Jaakkola, J. J., & Huang, P. C. (2017). Does exposure to phthalates influence thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis? The Taiwan Environmental Survey for Toxicants (TEST) 2013. Environmental research, 153, 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.11.014
  20. Ahern, T. P., Spector, L. G., Damkier, P., Öztürk Esen, B., Ulrichsen, S. P., Eriksen, K., Lash, T. L., Sørensen, H. T., & Cronin-Fenton, D. P. (2022). Medication-Associated Phthalate Exposure and Childhood Cancer Incidence. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 114(6), 885–894. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djac045
  21. Bustamante-Montes, L. P., Hernández-Valero, M. A., Flores-Pimentel, D., García-Fábila, M., Amaya-Chávez, A., Barr, D. B., & Borja-Aburto, V. H. (2013). Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns. Journal of developmental origins of health and disease, 4(4), 300–306. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2040174413000172
  22. Panagiotou, E. M., Ojasalo, V., & Damdimopoulou, P. (2021). Phthalates, ovarian function and fertility in adulthood. Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 35(5), 101552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2021.101552
  23. Dobrzyńska M. M. (2016). Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 2. The effects of phthalates on male gametes and on the offspring. Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 67(3), 209–221.
  24. Qian, Y., Shao, H., Ying, X., Huang, W., & Hua, Y. (2020). The Endocrine Disruption of Prenatal Phthalate Exposure in Mother and Offspring. Frontiers in public health, 8, 366. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00366
  25. Kelsey L.C. Dzwilewski, Megan L. Woodbury, Andrea Aguiar, Jessica Shoaff, Francheska Merced-Nieves, Susan A. Korrick, Susan L. Schantz. Associations of prenatal exposure to phthalates with measures of cognition in 7.5-month-old infants. NeuroToxicology, 2021; 84: 84 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2021.03.001
  26. Welch BM, Keil AP, Buckley JP, et al. Associations Between Prenatal Urinary Biomarkers of Phthalate Exposure and Preterm Birth: A Pooled Study of 16 US Cohorts. JAMA Pediatr. Published online July 11, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2252
  27. Geier, J., Uter, W., Pirker, C., & Frosch, P. J. (2003). Patch testing with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is useful in interpreting weak reactions to contact allergens as allergic or irritant. Contact dermatitis, 48(2), 99–107. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0536.2003.480209.x
  28. Branco, N., Lee, I., Zhai, H., & Maibach, H. I. (2005). Long-term repetitive sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritation of the skin: an in vivo study. Contact dermatitis, 53(5), 278–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00703.x
  29. Black RE, Hurley FJ, and Havery DC. “Occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic raw materials and finished cosmetic products.” Int J PharJ AOAC Int. 84, 3 (May-Jun 2001):666-70.
  30. Fiume, M. M., Heldreth, B., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Hill, R. A., Klaassen, C. D., Liebler, D., Marks, J. G., Jr, Shank, R. C., Slaga, T. J., Snyder, P. W., & Andersen, F. A. (2012). Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 31(5 Suppl), 169S–244S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581812444141
  31. Olga Biondi, Salvatore Motta, Pasquale Mosesso, Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol induces chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster cells cultured in vitro, Mutagenesis, Volume 17, Issue 3, May 2002, Pages 261–264, https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/17.3.261
  32. Lanigan, R. S., & Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (2001). Final report on the safety assessment of PPG-11 and PPG-15 stearyl ethers. International journal of toxicology, 20 Suppl 4, 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/10915810152902583
  33. Yueh, M. F., & Tukey, R. H. (2016). Triclosan: A Widespread Environmental Toxicant with Many Biological Effects. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology, 56, 251–272. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010715-103417
  34. Weatherly, L. M., & Gosse, J. A. (2017). Triclosan exposure, transformation, and human health effects. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews, 20(8), 447–469. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2017.1399306
  35. Calafat, A. M., Ye, X., Wong, L. Y., Reidy, J. A., & Needham, L. L. (2008). Urinary concentrations of triclosan in the U.S. population: 2003-2004. Environmental health perspectives, 116(3), 303–307. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10768
  36. Heffernan, A. L., Baduel, C., Toms, L. M., Calafat, A. M., Ye, X., Hobson, P., Broomhall, S., & Mueller, J. F. (2015). Use of pooled samples to assess human exposure to parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan in Queensland, Australia. Environment international, 85, 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.001
  37. Ajao, C., Andersson, M. A., Teplova, V. V., Nagy, S., Gahmberg, C. G., Andersson, L. C., Hautaniemi, M., Kakasi, B., Roivainen, M., & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. (2015). Mitochondrial toxicity of triclosan on mammalian cells. Toxicology reports, 2, 624–637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.03.012; Weatherly, L. M., Shim, J., Hashmi, H. N., Kennedy, R. H., Hess, S. T., & Gosse, J. A. (2016). Antimicrobial agent triclosan is a proton ionophore uncoupler of mitochondria in living rat and human mast cells and in primary human keratinocytes. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT, 36(6), 777–789. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.3209
  38. Udoji, F., Martin, T., Etherton, R., & Whalen, M. M. (2010). Immunosuppressive effects of triclosan, nonylphenol, and DDT on human natural killer cells in vitro. Journal of immunotoxicology, 7(3), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.3109/15476911003667470
  39. Cherednichenko, G., Zhang, R., Bannister, R. A., Timofeyev, V., Li, N., Fritsch, E. B., Feng, W., Barrientos, G. C., Schebb, N. H., Hammock, B. D., Beam, K. G., Chiamvimonvat, N., & Pessah, I. N. (2012). Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(35), 14158–14163. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211314109
  40. Louis, G. W., Hallinger, D. R., Braxton, M. J., Kamel, A., & Stoker, T. E. (2017). Effects of chronic exposure to triclosan on reproductive and thyroid endpoints in the adult Wistar female rat. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A, 80(4), 236–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2017.1287029
  41. Yueh, M. F., Taniguchi, K., Chen, S., Evans, R. M., Hammock, B. D., Karin, M., & Tukey, R. H. (2014). The commonly used antimicrobial additive triclosan is a liver tumor promoter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(48), 17200–17205. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1419119111; Lv, Y., Rui, C., Dai, Y., Pang, Q., Li, Y., Fan, R., & Lu, S. (2016). Exposure of children to BPA through dust and the association of urinary BPA and triclosan with oxidative stress in Guangzhou, China. Environmental science. Processes & impacts, 18(12), 1492–1499. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6em00472e
  42. Cherednichenko, G., Zhang, R., Bannister, R. A., Timofeyev, V., Li, N., Fritsch, E. B., Feng, W., Barrientos, G. C., Schebb, N. H., Hammock, B. D., Beam, K. G., Chiamvimonvat, N., & Pessah, I. N. (2012). Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(35), 14158–14163. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211314109
  43. Raut, S. A., & Angus, R. A. (2010). Triclosan has endocrine-disrupting effects in male western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 29(6), 1287–1291. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.150
  44. Feng, Y., Zhang, P., Zhang, Z., Shi, J., Jiao, Z., & Shao, B. (2016). Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats. PloS one, 11(5), e0154758. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154758
  45. Wang, X., Chen, X., Feng, X., Chang, F., Chen, M., Xia, Y., & Chen, L. (2015). Triclosan causes spontaneous abortion accompanied by decline of estrogen sulfotransferase activity in humans and mice. Scientific reports, 5, 18252. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep18252; Etzel, T. M., Calafat, A. M., Ye, X., Chen, A., Lanphear, B. P., Savitz, D. A., Yolton, K., & Braun, J. M. (2017). Urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Environmental research, 156, 505–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.015
  46. Li, S., Zhao, J., Wang, G., Zhu, Y., Rabito, F., Krousel-Wood, M., Chen, W., & Whelton, P. K. (2015). Urinary triclosan concentrations are inversely associated with body mass index and waist circumference in the US general population: Experience in NHANES 2003-2010. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 218(4), 401–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.03.004; tzel, T. M., Calafat, A. M., Ye, X., Chen, A., Lanphear, B. P., Savitz, D. A., Yolton, K., & Braun, J. M. (2017). Urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Environmental research, 156, 505–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.015
  47. Allmyr, M., Adolfsson-Erici, M., McLachlan, M. S., & Sandborgh-Englund, G. (2006). Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. The Science of the total environment, 372(1), 87–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.00
  48. Berardesca, E., Vignoli, G. P., Distante, F., Brizzi, P., & Rabbiosi, G. (1995). Effects of water temperature on surfactant-induced skin irritation. Contact dermatitis, 32(2), 83–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1995.tb00751.x
  49. Caroline Haineault, Pierrette Gourde, Sylvie Perron, André Désormeaux, Jocelyne Piret, Rabeea F. Omar, Roland R. Tremblay, Michel G. Bergeron, Thermoreversible Gel Formulation Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate as a Potential Contraceptive Device, Biology of Reproduction, Volume 69, Issue 2, 1 August 2003, Pages 687–694, https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.102.014043

Read more

Maternal health & the newborn microbiome

Maternal health & the newborn microbiome

What is our microbiome?  Our microbiome is comprised of microorganisms that live in a particular environment. The ‘gut microbiome’ is made up of trillions of microorganisms and their genetic materi...

Read more
Bath Bubbles: More Harm Than Good?
Baby bath

Bath Bubbles: More Harm Than Good?

Introduction: For a long time, bubbles have been associated with a relaxing and soothing bath experience. However, did you know that bubbles can often indicate that potential harmful ingredients ha...

Read more